Research article: Laboratory Automation and Sensitive Analytes - National Study from Clinical Biochemistry Departments in Denmark
Rebekka Lynge, Christina Isabella Kirkvaag, Ida Hornhaver Eilenberger, Anne Marie Duus Hansen, Julie Smith
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:43-48【PDF】

 

Abstract
Increased laboratory automation (LA) is becoming a necessity for high throughput centralized laboratories, however, LA provides new pre-analytical challenges. Prolonged air exposure may cause spurious analytical results for sensitive analytes when the de-capped open blood tubes are transported on assembly lines for prolonged periods and at different temperatures. This study maps LA systems in Denmark and investigates if sensitive analytes and LA is an issue of concern in Danish laboratories.
To nationally map LA and LA procedures for two sensitive analytes, blood alcohol and total carbon dioxide, a questionnaire was sent to all clinical biochemistry departments in Denmark (n=36 with inhouse analysis). Three departments were selected for further short interviews in 2020. In total, 86% (31/36) responded. Of respondents, 84% (26/31) had implemented LA: 65% with total laboratory automation and 35% with partial. When LA operated smoothly in the 26 laboratories, the median transport time was 5 minutes (range 2-90) from de-capping of blood tubes to blood analysis. Local laboratory guidelines on open tube stability of the analytes varied considerably: Blood alcohol 60 (0-300) minutes, and total carbon dioxide 60 (0-360) minutes. Consequently, some laboratories still handled sensitive analytes manually off the LA assembly line. This study demonstrated a diversity in how laboratories manage sensitive analytes and LA. This may jeopardize analytical results and patient safety, and evidence-based stability studies, international guidelines and LA technical adaptions are warranted for sensitive analytes to adopt to the contemporary LA setting.
 

Key words: Preanalytical; laboratory automation; blood alcohol; carbon dioxide; un-stoppered; de-capped; sensitive analytes.

 

Review article: Hematologic Abnormalities Associated with Post-Acute COVID-19 Sequelae or “long-COVID”- a Systematic Review
Jamie-lee Brundyn, Jamie Gillan, Indu Singh
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:23-42【PDF】

 

Abstract
Objective: SARS-CoV-2 emerged late 2019 and quickly spread globally. Acute COVID-19 effects were quickly elucidated; however, some patients were found to suffer from persistent symptoms in the absence of an acute infection. This places unnecessary pressure on healthcare systems and affects patient quality of life. Literature indicated lymphopenia, hyperferritinemia and coagulopathies were common among those with persistent symptoms. This systematic review aims to summarize the association between these hematologic abnormalities and long-COVID.
Methods: A systematic search of five electronic databases, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Griffith University library and Cochrane, was conducted using specified search terms described in the methods section. Studies were refined using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) tool. Data was retrieved from studies that passed the risk of bias (ROB) and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, as follows; number of participants (≥10), hematologic testing, timing of testing, and studies with full text available in English.
Results: The search strategy identified 14 studies that passed the ROB, met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and were selected for the systematic review. Though some patients experiencing long-COVID had lymphopenia, hyperferritin-emia and coagulopathies, there was inconsistencies found. Some patients with long-COVID had limited evidence of hematologic abnormalities.
Discussion: Lymphopenia was a frequent anomaly identified in post-acute COVID, however, not exclusive to long-COVID patients. New research has shown the absence of specific T and B lymphocyte subsets may be exclusive to long-COVID patients, along with the sustained activation of other immune cells. Evidence has also emerged showing sustained inflammation beyond the acute infection in long-COVID patients. Coagulopathies have been shown to persist due to an elevated D-dimer in post-acute COVID-19 analyses.
Conclusion: There is evidence of hematologic features that are exclusive to long-COVID, however, research is still limited. The cause and effect of these abnormalities are yet to be determined. With future directions, further supporting evidence may emerge elucidating the potential hematological causes and mediators of long-COVID.

 

Key words: Long-COVID, Persistent symptoms, Lymphopenia, Iron dysregulation, Coagulopathy.

Research article: Evaluation of the Effects of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on the Stability of Diabetes-Related Metabolic Biomarkers in Plasma Samples
Rebekka Gerwig, Frederikke Høgh, Joachim Størling, Katja Kemp Jacobsen
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:10-17【PDF】

 

Abstract
Background: Repeatedly freezing and thawing of samples can affect the stability of biomarkers in plasma samples. There is a lack of studies reporting how these preanalytical factors affect the stability of diabetes-related metabolic biomarkers. This study investigated the effects of repeated freeze/thaw cycles (FTC) on the analysis of insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, total glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), total glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), leptin and polypeptide YY (PYY).
Material and Methods: Plasma was prepared from blood samples collected from 10 healthy individuals. Each plasma sample was divided into 3 aliquots. An aliquot from each sample was analyzed immediately after preparation. The remaining aliquots were exposed to 3 and 5 repeated FTC. Samples were measured using a MESO Quickplex SQ 120 from Meso Scale Diagnostics LLC. (MSD) and the U-Plex Diabetes Combi 1 (hu) panel kit from MSD.
Results: The concentrations of GIP, GLP-1, insulin and PYY were statistical significantly affected by repeated FTC. After 5 FTC, the concentration of GIP was increased by 44 %, GLP-1 by 35 % and PYY by 22 %. There were no significant changes in the concentrations of glucagon, c-peptide and leptin after repeated FTC.
Conclusions: GIP, GLP-1 and PYY were significantly affected by repeated FTC. The concentration of these markers increased by 22-44 % with repeated FTC. Hence, repeated FTC can cause significant changes in the concentrations of the biomarkers. Our results suggest that caution should be exercised when comparing results of biomarkers between plasma samples that have been subject to FTC.

 

Key words: Preanalytical, laboratory test, plasma, freezing and thawing.

Mini-review: Hemostasis Pathophysiology Associated With Increased Risk of Thrombosis in Acute COVID-19 Infection
Jamie Gillan, Jamie-lee Brundyn, Indu Singh
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:18-22【PDF】

 

Abstract
The aim of this mini review is to understand how COVID-19 contributes to thrombotic events in patients. The recent and ongoing coronavirus 19 pandemic (COVID-19) has presented tremendous challenges to healthcare, with approximately 219 million cases worldwide and 4.5 million deaths associated with infection to date. Patients experience a significant immunological response to the virus, and this is often followed by a state of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has become increasingly evident that hemostatic dysregulation and thrombotic events are prevalent complications of acute COVID-19 infection and may persist chronically in the manifestation of “long-COVID.” Current anticoagulant therapies are insufficient in mitigating the risk of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients and further understanding regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms of hemostatic dysregulation following COVID-19 infection is critical to improve clinical management. This manuscript endeavors to summarize the current understanding based on the recent clinical literature and to identify potential future research directions to best inform clinicians on how to optimize patient outcomes.

 

Key words: COVID-19, hemostasis, thrombosis

International Journal of Biomedical Laboratory Science (IJBLS) Vol. 11, No. 1: 1-49
April, 2022  【PDF】

 

CONTENTS

Editorials
► SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Continues to Challenge Health care, Workforce and Families Across the Globe
Patricia Tille

Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:3-5【PDF】

► Can You Teach an Old Dog New Tricks?
Hassan A. Aziz

Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:6-7【PDF】

► Medi3 Healthcare - Managing SARS-CoV-2 in Norway
Ann-Kristin Tveten

Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:8-9【PDF】

 

Research article
► Evaluation of the Effects of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on the Stability of Diabetes-Related Metabolic Biomarkers in Plasma Samples
Rebekka Gerwig, Frederikke Høgh, Joachim Størling, Katja Kemp Jacobsen
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:10-17 【Abstract】 【PDF】

 

Mini-review
► Hemostasis Pathophysiology Associated With Increased Risk of Thrombosis in Acute COVID-19 Infection
Jamie Gillan, Jamie-lee Brundyn, Indu Singh
Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:18-22 【Abstract】 【PDF】
 
Review article
► Hematologic Abnormalities Associated with Post-Acute COVID-19 Sequelae or “long-COVID”- a Systematic Review
Jamie-lee Brundyn, Jamie Gillan, Indu Singh

Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:23-42 【Abstract】 【PDF】

 
Research article
► Laboratory Automation and Sensitive Analytes - National Study from Clinical Biochemistry Departments in Denmark
Rebekka Lynge, Christina Isabella Kirkvaag, Ida Hornhaver Eilenberger, Anne Marie Duus Hansen, Julie Smith

Int. J. Bio. Lab. Sci 2022(11)1:43-48 【Abstract】 【PDF】

 

 

 

Published 【PDF】

2020 Vol.9. No1

 

 

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2020 Vol.9. No1

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